Conversions, Substitutions, & More

Conversions, Substitutions, & More

UNITS

To convert units, simply type in a measurement stated in any recipe. For example, you’d type in “1/2 tablespoon in teaspoons” and then click the “Convert” button. A new page will open up with the converted measurement.

Need a few examples? 

• Pints in 1 quart
• 1 pound in ounces
• 6 ounces in grams
• 350F in C
• 16 oz in grams
• 1 pint in ounces

So, it’s: (measurement) + “in” + (measurement) = (converted measurement) 

* Please note that the converter does not convert equivalents (i.e. 1 cup of sliced almonds in grams).

MEASURING EQUIVALENTS

1 dash = 1/16 teaspoon
1 pinch = 1/8 teaspoon
1 teaspoon = 1/3 Tablespoon
1 1/2 teaspoons = 1/2 Tablespoon
1 Tablespoon (Tbsp) = 3 teaspoons (tsp)
1/16 cup = 1 Tablespoon
1/8 cup = 2 Tablespoons
1/6 cup = 2 Tablespoons + 2 teaspoons
1/4 cup = 4 Tablespoons
1/3 cup = 5 Tablespoons + 1 teaspoon
3/8 cup = 6 Tablespoons
1/2 cup = 8 Tablespoons

2/3 cup = 10 Tablespoons + 2 teaspoons
3/4 cup = 12 Tablespoons
1 cup = 48 teaspoons
1 cup = 16 Tablespoons
8 fluid ounces (fl oz) = 1 cup
1 pint (pt) = 2 cups
1 quart (qt) = 2 pints
4 cups = 1 quart
1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts
16 ounces (oz) = 1 pound (lb)
1 milliliter (ml) = 1 cubic centimeter (cc)
1 inch (in) = 2.54 centimeters (cm)

BASIC PAN EQUIVALENTS

Bundt Pans and/or Tube Pans (9 in/ 23 cm or 10 in / 25 cm)
Approximate Volume Capacity: 10 – 12 cups / 2.3 – 2.8 L

Glass or Metal Pie Pans (9 in/ 23 cm)
Approximate Volume Capacity: 5 cups/ 1.3 L

Loaf Pans (8 x 4 in/ 20 x 10 cm or 9 x 5 in / 23 x 12 cm)
Approximate Volume Capacity: 4 cups / 1 L or 8 cups / 2 L

Loose-Bottom Fluted Tart Pan (9 in/ 23 cm or 10 in / 25 cm)

Rectangular Baking Pan (9 x 13 in / 23 x 33 cm)
Approximate Volume Capacity: 15 cups / 3.5 L

Rimmed Baking Sheets (13 x 18 in / 33 x 46 cm)
Approximate Volume Capacity: 12 cups / 3 L

Round Cake Pans (8 in / 20 cm or 9 in / 23 cm)
Approximate Volume Capacity: 4 cups / 1 L or 6 cups / 1.5 L

Square Baking Pan (8 in / 20 cm or 9 in / 23 cm)
Approximate Volume Capacity: 6 cups / 1.5 L or 8 cups / 2 L

12-cup Muffin Pan (The standard size of each cup is about 3 in / 8cm in diameter and 1 in / 3cm in depth).
Approximate Volume Capacity: 7 Tablespoons / 100ml (for each cup) or 5 1/4 cups / 1.2 L (in total)

How to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius: Subtract 32 from Fahrenheit, multiply the result by 5, then divide by 9.

How to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: Multiply by 9, divide that result by 5, then add 32.

OVEN TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS

225ºF = 110ºC = Gas Mark 1/4

250ºF = 130ºC = Gas Mark 1/2

275ºF = 140ºC = Gas Mark 1

300ºF = 150ºC = Gas Mark 2

325ºF = 160ºC = Gas Mark 3

350ºF = 180ºC = Gas Mark 4

375ºF = 190ºC = Gas Mark 5

400ºF = 200ºC = Gas Mark 6

425ºF = 210ºC = Gas Mark 7

450ºF = 220ºC = Gas Mark 8

475ºF = 240ºC = Gas Mark 9

500ºF = 260ºC = Gas Mark 10

CANDY MAKING TEMPERATURES

223ºF – 234ºF = 106ºC – 112ºC = Thread Stage
234ºF – 240ºF = 112ºC – 115ºC = Soft Ball Stage
244ºF – 248ºF = 116ºC – 120ºC = Firm Stage
250ºF – 266ºF = 122ºC – 130ºC = Hard Ball Stage
270ºF – 290ºF = 132ºC – 143ºC = Soft Crack Stage
300ºF – 310ºF = 146ºC – 155ºC = Hard Crack Stage
320ºF – 338ºF = 160ºC – 170ºC = Light Caramel Stage
338ºF – 350ºF = 170ºC – 177ºC = Medium Caramel Stage
350ºF – 360ºF = 177ºC – 182ºC = Dark Caramel Stage

MEAT TEMPERATURES

How do you know when your meat is cooked? All of the following temperatures are safe minimum internal temperature requirements for meat. Included are up-to-date USDA Guidelines and temperature guidelines preferred by professional kitchens. The temperature is taken before removing from the heat source, and prior to resting the meat.

GROUND LAMB

USDA Guidelines: 170ºF
Professional Kitchen: 160ºF

LAMB

Rare
USDA Guidelines: N/A
Professional Kitchen: 110ºF – 115ºF

Medium-Rare
USDA Guidelines: 145ºF
Professional Kitchen: 130ºF

Medium
USDA Guidelines: 160ºF
Professional Kitchen: 140ºF

Medium-Well
USDA Guidelines: N/A
Professional Kitchen: 145ºF – 150ºF

Well-Done
USDA Guidelines: 160ºF
Professional Kitchen: 150ºF – 155ºF

GROUND BEEF

USDA Guidelines: 160ºF
Professional Kitchen: 160ºF

BEEF

Rare
USDA Guidelines: N/A
Professional Kitchen: 115ºF

Medium Rare
USDA Guidelines: 145ºF
Professional Kitchen: 120ºF – 130ºF

Medium
USDA Guidelines: 160ºF
Professional Kitchen: 140ºF

Medium-Well
USDA Guidelines: N/A
Professional Kitchen: 150ºF

Well-Done
USDA Guidelines: 170ºF
Professional Kitchen: 155ºF – 160ºF

PORK

Medium
USDA Guidelines: 160ºF
Professional Kitchen: 145ºF

Well-Done
USDA Guidelines: 170ºF
Professional Kitchen: 160ºF

GROUND PORK

USDA Guidelines: 160ºF
Professional Kitchen: 160ºF

POULTRY (I.E. CHICKEN, TURKEY, QUAIL, GOOSE, DUCK, PIGEON/SQUAB)

Includes: whole bird, legs, thighs, and wings, ground poultry, and stuffing
USDA Guidelines: 165ºF
Professional Kitchen: 165ºF

BONELESS CHICKEN / TURKEY BREASTS

USDA Guidelines: 165ºF
Professional Kitchen: 160ºF

INGREDIENT EQUIVALENTS

BUTTER
1 Tablespoon = 14g
1 Stick = 8 Tablespoons = 1/2 cup = 4 oz = 113g
4 Sticks = 32 Tablespoons = 2 cups = 16 oz = 452g

SUGARS
– Confectioner’s Sugar (also known as: Icing Sugar and Powdered Sugar): 1 cup = 100g
– Granulated (white sugar) / Natural cane sugar: 1 cup = 200g
– Packed Brown Sugar (Light, Dark, and Muscovado) = 200g
– Demerara / Turbinado Sugar: 1 cup = 210g

HONEY: 1 cup = 345g

FLOURS
– All-Purpose Flour: 1 cup = 120g
– Whole Wheat Pastry Flour: 1 cup = 120g
– Bread Flour: 1 cup = 125g
– Almond Flour: (refer to “Nuts”)
– Hazelnut Flour: (refer to “Nuts”)

COCOA POWDER (Natural / Dutch-Processed, Unsweetened): 1 cup = 100g

CHOCOLATE CHIPS / CHUNKS (Bittersweet, Semisweet, Dark, Milk, White): 1 cup = 170g

RAISINS: 1 cup = 170g

ONIONS:
1 lb = 453g = 3 large onions = 2 to 2 1/2 cups, chopped or sliced

NUTS:
– Shelled Pistachio Nuts: 1 cup = 115g
– Pecans: 1 cup = 130g
– Walnuts: 1 cup = 12g
– Ground Hazelnuts (Hazelnut Flour / Hazelnut Meal: 1 cup = 75g
– Ground Almonds (Almond Flour / Almond Meal): 1 cup = 80g

PEANUT BUTTER: 1 cup = 270g

SHREDDED COCONUT: 1 cup = 130g

COCONUT OIL: 1 cup = 210g

CREAM
– Half & Half (1/2 milk + 1/2 heavy cream: 10.5% – 18% butterfat content
– Light whipping cream: 30% butterfat content
– Heavy whipping cream: 40% butterfat content
– Double cream: 48% butterfat content

LEMON:
1 medium lemon = 2 Tablespoons juice
1 medium lemon = 1 to 2 teaspoons lemon zest

LIME:
1 medium lime = 4 1/2 to 5 teaspoons juice

ORANGE:
1 medium orange = 1⁄3 to 1⁄2 cup juice = 80 to 120ml
1 medium orange = 2 to 3 Tablespoons zest

SUBSTITUTIONS & OTHER RESOURCES

JoyofBaking.com Substitutions – Experimentation, and substituting certain ingredients for those we like or prefer, is crucial to our growth in the kitchen. Some things are better substitutes than others, depending on the recipe. This is a great guideline of  popular ingredients and their possible substitutions.

• StillTasty– This is the ultimate shelf life guide. It tells you the shelf life of everything from Dark Chocolate to Unbaked Apple Pie filling, and how long it can be kept for in an ideal condition (i.e. at room temperature, in the refrigerator, or in the freezer).

• Epicurious’s High-Altitude Baking Guide– A comprehensive guide of high-altitude baking tips and tricks to always keep in mind while baking above sea level.

• The BBC Food Dictionary of Ingredients– Don’t know what an ingredient is, or you simply don’t know how to buy, prepare, and store it? Simply take a search through this amazing depository of information on how to do all that!

• Meat & Poultry Roasting Chart– FoodSafety.gov has an extensive table for preparing meats and poultry. Don’t know how long to roast a crown roast, and at what temperature? They’ve a good, easy-to-understand guideline.

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